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Tel Arad • תל ערד‎ • تل عراد‎

Arad is 8.9 hectares, surrounded by a wall that is 2/2.5 m wide, 4/5 m high and 1,176 m long, and which is elaborated with semi-circular and, later, rectilinear towers.

Arad III

Arad III represents Early Bronze Age II of the Southern Levant. Petrographic links with Sinai, shells from Red Sea, slags andmetallurgical materials from Sinai. What makes it remarkable is that it is very urbanized. NO gap after Stratum III (between III and II) housese from Statum III continue styles.

Arad II

Destruction for unknown reason, A thick burn layer places its destruction at 2,800 BC. Possibly an Egyptian incursion, local infighting or even an earthquake that started a fire. Towers are now rectangular while Arad II has semi-circular towers. One thing interesting are twin temples built in broad-house style with entries on long sides. Sacred precinct, large twin temple, small twin temple and large single-mounted cultic structure. What gives it away as a temple is benches along the entirety of the room and small standing stones. Lime stone block and superstructure of mud brick -- regions that are dry (and mud brick requires water) generally have higher stone foundation.

Arad I

Sparse settlement. Squatters are living on remains of Stratum II city. Abandonment by 2650 BC. Maybe trade relationship as a "middle-man" role in the copper exchange had collapsed. It is possibly that Egyptians had already gone directly in the Early Bronze II to the Sinai, taking forceful control of the mines.

Iron IIB and IIC

The temple in Arad should not exist by the ideology of Hezekiah. Lots of altars were found that existed on the roofs of houses. People would go atop their houses and light incense on their roof.

Arad Ostraca

A correspondence with the guy commanding the fortress.