The Davidic Kingdom divided in BCE (I Kings 12 - 14, I Kings 19, II Kings 17:21). Samaria was destroyed and repopulated in BCE (II Kings 17, Ezra 4:2) and the
Ten Lost Tribes of Israel made their way into Judah, while some stayed behind.
When Jews began to return to their homeland during the Persian Period of the Levant, there was opposition between the Samaritans (
People Who Remained) and the returnees Ezra 4 - 5. The
Myth of the Empty Land refers to the claim that the land was empty, which is likely a manifestation of radical separatism (ezra 9-10) that just left the people who remained completely unacknowledged (those who remained had developed their own unique culture).