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Near East terrain

Some useful vocabulary: تل tell means hill in Arabic; گردی gardi means hill of in Kurdish; and ishkaft means cave in Persian (اشکفت) and Kurdish (ئەشکەفت).




Asia Minor (Anatolia)


Karia in southwest Anatolia was ruled for much of the 4th century BC by the Hekatomnid dynasty under Persian control. The Hekatomnid dynasty was a great patron of sanctuaries in many parts of the Greek world. The most famous Hekatomnid ruler was Maussollos, best known for his great tomb the Mausoleum of Halikarnassos. Like other satraps of the period, Maussollos forged links with both Greece and Persia to achieve his own political ambitions.


Didyma, near Miletus in Asia Minor, was the site of a famous oracle at the Sanctuary of Apollo. During the 6th century BC, visitors to the sanctuary gave gifts which made it one of the richest in Greece. Didyma was linked with the sea by a Sacred Way. The Sacred Way was lined with monumental statues offered as gifts to Apollo. Most statues represent seated men and women, sometimes identified by inscriptions as members of aristocratic families. The grand scale of the Sacred Way reflects the wealth and power of 6th century Miletus, a great sea-faring city which managed to regain its political independence while surrounding areas succumbed to Lydians and then Persians.

Arabian Peninsula


The Midians were caravaneers (Gen 37:28).

When Pharaoh heard of it, he sought to kill Moses. But Moses fled from Pharaoh. He settled in the land of Midian, and sat down by a well. Ex 2:15 ... Moses was keeping the flock of his father-in-law Jethro, the priest of Midian; he led his flock beyond the wilderness, and came to Horeb, the mountain of God. Ex 3:1