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Egypt

Event

Time

Description

Neolithic Egypt

Neolithic Period

5450 - 3850 BC

The Neolithic period of eastern North Africa.

Early Neolithic

5450 - 4250 BC

Late Neolithic

4250 - 3850 BC

Ancient Egypt

Predynastic Period

4500-3100 BC

Founding of Egypt

~3,100 BC

Early Dynastic Period

3100-2750 BC

Late Period

712-332 BC

Ptolemaic Period

332-30 BC

Roman Period

30 BC - AD 395

Predynastic era

Predynastic Period

4500-3100 BC

Badarian

4500-3800 BC

Naqada I

3850-3650 BC

Characterized by Cross-Lined Ware (found at Abydos) which had white decoration on red burnished pottery, specific to Naqada I only. Also it is characterized by Black-Topped Redware (née Double Vessels) which were ceramics developed in Naqada I and ending in Naqada II, with black oxidization at the top of red burnished pottery.

Naqada II

3650-3300 BC

Characterized by decorated ware, which was white pottery with red painted decoration.

Naqada III

3300-3100 BC

Exemplar

Description

Tomb U-j

Abydos. The tomb of King Scorpion I, which is the oldest tomb at Abydos and which contained many small ivory plaques which may have been among the earliest hieroglyphs.

Cities Palette

Abydos.

Limestone macehead of King Scorpion II

3100 BC. This demonstrates that the principle of arranging figures in horizontal registers was firmly in place by this time. The king is shown as larger than his followers, but it still took longer than the register principles to fully develop the notion of a single gargantuan figure.

Scorpion I

Scorpion I is known for his Tomb U-J at Abydos, the oldest tomb at Abydos. Tomb U-J was plundered in antiquity but during excavations was still found to contain many small ivory plaques. Each ivory plaque had a hole for tying, and had a scratched hieroglyph-type image thought to be town names; perhaps they labeled offerings from towns he conquered, and the necessity for organization brought about the Egyptian hieroglyphic system.

Scorpion II

Known for the Scorpion Macehead.

Early Dynastic era

Founding of Egypt

~3,100 BC

Early Dynastic Period

3100-2750 BC

Dynasty I

3100-2900 BC

Narmer

Dynasty II

2900-2750 BC

Major finds include the Limestone statue of King Khasekhem, Seal impressions of King Khasekhemwy, Statue of Khasekhemwy and Tomb of Khasekhemwy.

Peribsen

Unlike the Dynasty II kings who had all been buried at Saqqara, King Peribsen chose to be buried at Abydos alongside the Dynasty I kings. There may have been internal conflict at the time, which contributed to his decision to place Seth atop his serekh on the stela at his tomb.

Khasekhemwy

First Intermediate era

First Intermediate Era

2200 - 2040 BC

Old Kingdom

Second Intermediate era

Second Intermediate Era

Middle Kingdom

Third Intermediate era

Third Intermediate Era

The Third Intermediate era was a time of foreign invasion and civil war.

Twenty-First Dynasty

Twenty-Second Dynasty

Twenty-Third Dynasty

Twenty-Fourth Dynasty

Twenty-Fifth Dynasty

New Kingdom

Eighteenth Dynasty

1539-1292 BC

Nineteenth Dynasty

1755-1630 BC

Twentieth Dynasty

1190-1075 BC

Ramses III

Glossary of Ancient Egypt

Term

Description

Nome

A province of Egypt.

Nomarch

During the First Intermediate Period, the governors of the nome gained enough control that have oft been called nomarchs.

Nesu-bit

Dual kingship over the two Egypts.

Nubia

As early as Dynasty I, Egyptian kings established trade and diplomatic connections with Nubia, the land directly to the south. It was home to the Kush kingdom, which had abundant gold. Although boundaries shifted over the centuries, the ancient Egyptian definition of Nubia seemed to include the region between the modern-day cities of Aswan, Egypt and Khartoum, Sudan. The relationship between Egypt and Nubia fluctuated: in early Dynasty 18, Egyptians ruled Nubia as military conquerors; in the 8th century BC, the Nubians defeated Egypt and ruled there as Dynasty 25. In spite of their proximity and interaction, each culture developed and maintained a distinct aesthetic tradition. When the Egyptian government opened the Aswan Dam in 1970, the archaeological remains of ancient Nubia were submerged by Lake Nasser.

Great Names

Refers to the five names of the king: his Horus name; his Throne name (traditionally incorporating Ra); and others.

Khat

Dead body in general.

Tut

Embalmed body.

Sah

Embalmed body on whcih the properrites of mummification had been performed. Distinctive as the mummies, anthropoid coffins and mummiform statues.

Maat

Cosmic order.

Great House
per wer

Used in relation to early shrines, referring to a preformal architectural style. They were often made of wood and reeds.

House of God
hwt netjer

All temples in Egypt were considered the dwelling places of the gods, and had a standardized layout in a formal architectural style. There are three key elements of formal architecture: temple is a microcosm (architecture reflects aspects of the natural world); temple is a house of the god (the god inhabits a palace-like space and is served by priests); temple is maat (architecture and decoration create a completely pure and sacred place away from chaos).

Pyramid Text

Coffin Text

Coffin texts were even wilder than the pyramid texts. They mainly dealt with: provisioning the deceased; helping him pass into the duat; preventing him from burning in the lake of fire; and lots of transformation spells.